demons of yesterday and today (I)

For thousands of years people believed in the existence of evil, personified soon in different ways in a variety of types of demons and a full repertoire of chimeras greedy of human flesh and blood.


The Neo Romanticist literature achieved to exorcise, besides the cinema shortly after, the fear of the people to the ghosts and the supernatural matter, we are vaccinated against it to the point that vampires and werewolves today are no longer the monstrous terrifying creatures original but the handsome and naughty that warm adolescents up. For some time we have been exposed to controlled alien terror and interstellar phenomena doses, so we also must consider ourselves cured of this, but I do not want even to think, why we must to lose respect to violence.


The Sumerian voice AB.ZU (Akkadian Apsu) may well be the origin of the Greek “Abyssos”, the abyss beneath which was the ARALI, the world of the dead, the first hell of which we are aware, similar to primitive Greek Hades or the Jewish Sheol, a place where everything is languishing between the dust and shadows. In the Sumerian tradition, the dead enjoyed a different diet depending on the volume of offerings made ​​by the family and living relatives, so those dead who had rich relatives alive, ate splendidly and regularly, while if the living relatives were poor maybe they ate only from time to time, but ultimately, as always, when there are no living relatives neither rich nor poor, the vast majority of the inhabitants of the underworld fed themselves just of ground, not as today in which, as we all know, the dead are herbivores.


Later, during the Babylonian period and thereafter the world without return was filled with forgotten gods and especially with demons, who paradoxically were escaping constantly for human martyrdom . Pazuzu the demon who made ​​her film debut in the movie “The Omen” was actually a seemingly benign demon since he was in charge of driving the terrible female demon Lamashtu back to the underworld every time she leaked in order to, her specialty, to dine babies of mothers that tried to protect them invoking the Lama or Lamassu, a female creature of the God ENKI, sort of guardian angel who was the divine counterpart of this demoness.



Pazuzu holds the plaque where the Lamashtu is represented over the donkey (her symbol) into a boat crossing the abzu in the direction to the IRIGAL (the big city) ie the ARALI, the underworld.

In the bronze stands out among other things, the way a pig and a dog suck the breasts of the devil, actually a chimera, whose presence may perhaps be justified by the possible attacks on children on farms by these animals, accidents that, by negligence or some else, may have been frequent and could have been interpreted as a work of Lamashtu. In many cases, the unexplainable was blame of “the hand of an etemmu” or “the hand of the such  devil ” or even “the hand of the such god (or goddess)”.


Burying the dead was of utmost importance in ancient Mesopotamian more for fear than respect, however they saw the incineration as something repugnant which was deemed as a punishment and a curse. It is possible that exposure to vultures or other scavengers continued been practiced given the paucity of burials found, but die in the wilderness, alone, had a strongly negative connotation and was believed that a particular type of punisher devil, errant and disembodied, was that in which the unfortunates who were dying strayed, became .


To the Sumerians, apparently, the dead were little less than demons, as is evidenced by the similarity of the words for the phantasm and devil, GiDIN or GEDIM and UDUG (etemmu and utukku in Akkadian):




Enki Nudimmud



(AN).EN.KI.TI  “Enki gives the life”

I’ve always been more of Kramer than Oppenheim, until I discovered to Bottéro . I Like Bottéro because use to fill their publications with references, anecdotes and details to the point of turning , in my view, a mere translation commented in a nuanced description of a lost world and mentality at the borderline of history, is what Kramer did, both with their feet on the floor too maybe, if you like myths and fiction is much better Sitchin or the Bible, for example.

I always wondered where it comes from the name of the biblical god , ie I already knew that the word “Elohim” was somehow related to the Canaanite “El” or Akkadian “ilu “, I mean the unpronounceable name ” Yahweh ” the tetragrammaton ” IHVH ” and what a coincidence, Bottéro gives a clue, letting it falling, as who does not want the thing.

Yahweh is as we know, the god Jehová of most English speakers , also the Jah of weed smokers and the yahu of the terminations of Jewish’s names today, as Netanyahu, before readed Netanias, at least in Castilian . Truly the tetragrammaton is unpronounceable, because we do not know certainty where to insert the vowels between the consonants, which were the only letters the ancient Hebrews wrote as many other peoples did since the Phoenicians invented the alphabet . It is true that the particle “Yah” or ” Yahu ” actually is readed in Hebrew just as it sounds when it is at the end of a name but the fact is that when it is located at the top, it reads ” Yeh ” and ” Yehoshuah ” or as in Castilian, Jesús, Jeremías, etc. . While in Syriac it reads ” Yoh “.

Well, According to Bottéro there are mentions of a god in Akkadian transcribed as ” Yahu ” and is apparently only a dialect, a local pronunciation of the name of the god EA , ie ENKI , is not great ? . So the god who said to Abraham to get lost from Ur , could be neither more nor less than the Sumerian god of Eridu . The artful ENKI , creator of mankind , the son of Nammu , the snake -headed goddess and AN, the father of the gods. ENKI The ruler of ABZU , the aquatic world above which the earth floats, the engineer of the gods, master of, teachers of humanity at their turn, Chief of the Lamassu , female guards Demones , ENKI the drunkard who cheerfully gave his powerful ME to the ambitious and impertinent Inanna, the father of Marduk, which would lead the pantheon of the Babylonian Empire for two thousand years , ENKI the promiscuous, the immoral who had daughters with the daughters of their daughters, the scientist, the artifice, the atheist who laughed of the severe plans of the gods, the slugabed who had to be awaked up by his mother in order to save the world, the cunning and devious rival of Enlil , the chief of the gods who never was tired of trying to exterminate humans, plotting calamities until in one way or another were undone by ENKI, the god of Noah, or Ziusudra as it really was then called .

Amazing, but everyone Jewish -Christian- Muslim could have been worshiping, unknowingly, to the most charismatic and irreverent ,at the same time, of the Sumerian gods.





(God)        A        –       NUN           –   NA               –    KE4                –    NE

A lot of of clay documents refer to these ancient gods, but two are especially extense, the Enuma Elish and Atrahasis, compositions reworked for political and religious reasons throughout the centuries while they passed from hands of the Sumerians to the Akkadians , Babylonians, Assyrians and Persians, texts which it has to say they had no  the doctrinal character of other holy books like the Bible or the Koran, it was just a kind of mystical epic where the knights were celestial gods and the dragons and ladies were chimeras and simple human women, or vice versa because everything fits up in a millennial civilization as the Sumerian or rather Mesopotamian.
Admittedly, Zechariah Sitchin, despite the confusion and diatribes that have been generated from his books, has discovered a forgotten world to more people than the real specialists, not wanting to detract from what have done the great eminences as S. N. Kramer work or J. Bottero, popularizers and at the same time true academic experts, to whom I owe many hours of fascinating, and in my opinion,  very nice reading.

There are a lot of envy out there, it is true that Sitchin has enriched with his books, wielding much documentation and speculating at will, sometimes abusing the trust of the people, but the same do daily the banks, governments and religions and however their prestige mysteriously prevails.

The Sumerian language is partially known quite well and it is easier to translate on the clay tablets after two thousand years before the current era, since it is then when appears the use of grammatical particles as a logical evolution and necessary, Sumerian writing was more or less like the language of the Indians of the western movies that speak with infinitives, succinct and with much room for speculation. Seen like this way, Sitchin’s interpretations sometimes seem no more absurd than those of professional linguists, while other times it seems evident that perhaps he let him carried away by imagination, as in the case of  the Sumerian word MU which it translates to Akkadian SHUMU and it is in the Hebrew, which is a relative of Akkadian, as SHEM, a term which also designates the son of Noah, the word “name” and  “monument” as well. Although sometimes the cuneiform sign is really a picture of what it wants to express, Sitchin lays aside the usual phonetic value and reinterprets its meaning of the cuneiform glyph from its shape, on the other hand extremely similar to what in the popular imagery of nowdays is a rocket or spacecraft, profoundly altering the meaning of some passages Sumerians and even the Bible, so according to Sitchin we have Gilgamesh , in its famous epic, saying something like that (do not be evil-minded, I do not I think this guy had erection problems):
“May I raise my rocket,
In the place where the rockets are raised …..! ”
, When specialists read:
“May I raise my name,
In the place where the names are raised ….! ”
whose interpreting is more evident if we give to the word “name” the meaning “reputation.” Sitchin is defended on the grounds that SHEM often refers to a bethilo or obelisk, a memorial, which is ultimately a representation in stone of a rocket. Specialists are not willing to accept this under any concept, but they do not know for a fact, what meaning could have these bethilos or obelisks for the people of those times,  some of these specialists speculate (yes, also specialists speculate, especially when the other version seems too bizarre or extravagant) that an obelisk is a stylized shape of pyramid, explanation which in my opinion is not particularly enlightening. Moreover, the idea of ​​”celestial chariots” is not a strange thing at all, in ancient writings as the Mahabharata, the Bible or the Koran, as can be seen through the vision of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1) or  that of Enoch (Genesis  5:24), who is said explicitly that he did not die but was taken up into heaven like Eliáh (Kings 2:11).

I have not really found in the sad handful of clay tablets available on the Internet, the term “an-nun-na-ki”, whose meaning according to Sitchin is the suggestive “those who came from heaven to earth”, but there are tens of thousands of tablets which of course I have not seen and finally, as I mentioned, given the schematic character of the Sumerian writing pre-grammar , where speculation is paramount, everything is possible. Actually the word that usually designates the gods varies, sometimes are the A-NUN-NA, sometimes the A-NUN-NAK, in other  occasions A-NUN-NA-KE4-NE, some even A-NUN-KE4-NE, and the translation in all cases is difficult and highly speculative, usually experts point to the NUN term meaning “prince, noble” which along with other grammatical particles broadly come to mean “the the lineage of princes “, translation is extremely unsatisfactory and could be misleading, confusing human kings with the gods, if not because fortunately the Sumerians used to distinguish the names of the gods by prepending an asterisk (AN = “sky”, “star”, others translate directly as DINGIR  “god”) which is not verbalized.
In my post of April, I speculated (I speculate, you speculate …. all of us speculate) with the meaning of the name of the city of Eridu, whose sign is the same as “prince”, ie NUN, then * A-NUN-NA-KE4-NE could also mean “of the lineage of Eridu”, the first city founded by the Sumerians.
Since deceased Zechariah Sitchin did put into fashion the Anunakis, lots of Conspiranoids  have developed  a few theories around these arcane gods relatively poorly known and to which have been attributed  for free, given the paucity of evidence, more by intuition than logic, a reptilian origin, we can not forget that if the dinosaurs had not been exterminated, it is likely that the dominant species on this planet was not that of mammals, on the other hand, there are snake-gods in most mythologies known and specifically in that of the Sumerians, that is of what we are talking about, there are seals and representations of gods with reptilian body, not to mention the enigmatic statuettes of mothers with children and snake head, very popular five thousand years ago given the number of them that have been found. Even so, we can speak of clues, suspicions, there is no evidence in the strict sense of the term, so that I do prefer overfly this whole story which goes from the Anunakis to the Rothschild, passing by the Templars and in which I believe Sitchin himself, not dared enter.