demons of yesterday and today (I)

For thousands of years people believed in the existence of evil, personified soon in different ways in a variety of types of demons and a full repertoire of chimeras greedy of human flesh and blood.

 

The Neo Romanticist literature achieved to exorcise, besides the cinema shortly after, the fear of the people to the ghosts and the supernatural matter, we are vaccinated against it to the point that vampires and werewolves today are no longer the monstrous terrifying creatures original but the handsome and naughty that warm adolescents up. For some time we have been exposed to controlled alien terror and interstellar phenomena doses, so we also must consider ourselves cured of this, but I do not want even to think, why we must to lose respect to violence.

 

The Sumerian voice AB.ZU (Akkadian Apsu) may well be the origin of the Greek “Abyssos”, the abyss beneath which was the ARALI, the world of the dead, the first hell of which we are aware, similar to primitive Greek Hades or the Jewish Sheol, a place where everything is languishing between the dust and shadows. In the Sumerian tradition, the dead enjoyed a different diet depending on the volume of offerings made ​​by the family and living relatives, so those dead who had rich relatives alive, ate splendidly and regularly, while if the living relatives were poor maybe they ate only from time to time, but ultimately, as always, when there are no living relatives neither rich nor poor, the vast majority of the inhabitants of the underworld fed themselves just of ground, not as today in which, as we all know, the dead are herbivores.

 

Later, during the Babylonian period and thereafter the world without return was filled with forgotten gods and especially with demons, who paradoxically were escaping constantly for human martyrdom . Pazuzu the demon who made ​​her film debut in the movie “The Omen” was actually a seemingly benign demon since he was in charge of driving the terrible female demon Lamashtu back to the underworld every time she leaked in order to, her specialty, to dine babies of mothers that tried to protect them invoking the Lama or Lamassu, a female creature of the God ENKI, sort of guardian angel who was the divine counterpart of this demoness.

 

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Pazuzu holds the plaque where the Lamashtu is represented over the donkey (her symbol) into a boat crossing the abzu in the direction to the IRIGAL (the big city) ie the ARALI, the underworld.

In the bronze stands out among other things, the way a pig and a dog suck the breasts of the devil, actually a chimera, whose presence may perhaps be justified by the possible attacks on children on farms by these animals, accidents that, by negligence or some else, may have been frequent and could have been interpreted as a work of Lamashtu. In many cases, the unexplainable was blame of “the hand of an etemmu” or “the hand of the such  devil ” or even “the hand of the such god (or goddess)”.

 

Burying the dead was of utmost importance in ancient Mesopotamian more for fear than respect, however they saw the incineration as something repugnant which was deemed as a punishment and a curse. It is possible that exposure to vultures or other scavengers continued been practiced given the paucity of burials found, but die in the wilderness, alone, had a strongly negative connotation and was believed that a particular type of punisher devil, errant and disembodied, was that in which the unfortunates who were dying strayed, became .

 

To the Sumerians, apparently, the dead were little less than demons, as is evidenced by the similarity of the words for the phantasm and devil, GiDIN or GEDIM and UDUG (etemmu and utukku in Akkadian):

 

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Enki Nudimmud

 

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(AN).EN.KI.TI  “Enki gives the life”

I’ve always been more of Kramer than Oppenheim, until I discovered to Bottéro . I Like Bottéro because use to fill their publications with references, anecdotes and details to the point of turning , in my view, a mere translation commented in a nuanced description of a lost world and mentality at the borderline of history, is what Kramer did, both with their feet on the floor too maybe, if you like myths and fiction is much better Sitchin or the Bible, for example.

I always wondered where it comes from the name of the biblical god , ie I already knew that the word “Elohim” was somehow related to the Canaanite “El” or Akkadian “ilu “, I mean the unpronounceable name ” Yahweh ” the tetragrammaton ” IHVH ” and what a coincidence, Bottéro gives a clue, letting it falling, as who does not want the thing.

Yahweh is as we know, the god Jehová of most English speakers , also the Jah of weed smokers and the yahu of the terminations of Jewish’s names today, as Netanyahu, before readed Netanias, at least in Castilian . Truly the tetragrammaton is unpronounceable, because we do not know certainty where to insert the vowels between the consonants, which were the only letters the ancient Hebrews wrote as many other peoples did since the Phoenicians invented the alphabet . It is true that the particle “Yah” or ” Yahu ” actually is readed in Hebrew just as it sounds when it is at the end of a name but the fact is that when it is located at the top, it reads ” Yeh ” and ” Yehoshuah ” or as in Castilian, Jesús, Jeremías, etc. . While in Syriac it reads ” Yoh “.

Well, According to Bottéro there are mentions of a god in Akkadian transcribed as ” Yahu ” and is apparently only a dialect, a local pronunciation of the name of the god EA , ie ENKI , is not great ? . So the god who said to Abraham to get lost from Ur , could be neither more nor less than the Sumerian god of Eridu . The artful ENKI , creator of mankind , the son of Nammu , the snake -headed goddess and AN, the father of the gods. ENKI The ruler of ABZU , the aquatic world above which the earth floats, the engineer of the gods, master of Ab.gal.lu, teachers of humanity at their turn, Chief of the Lamassu , female guards Demones , ENKI the drunkard who cheerfully gave his powerful ME to the ambitious and impertinent Inanna, the father of Marduk, which would lead the pantheon of the Babylonian Empire for two thousand years , ENKI the promiscuous, the immoral who had daughters with the daughters of their daughters, the scientist, the artifice, the atheist who laughed of the severe plans of the gods, the slugabed who had to be awaked up by his mother in order to save the world, the cunning and devious rival of Enlil , the chief of the gods who never was tired of trying to exterminate humans, plotting calamities until in one way or another were undone by ENKI, the god of Noah, or Ziusudra as it really was then called .

Amazing, but everyone Jewish -Christian- Muslim could have been worshiping, unknowingly, to the most charismatic and irreverent ,at the same time, of the Sumerian gods.

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NAMMU.