12.000 BC

r_humano_en_piedra_cerca_de_gobekli_tepe
Gobekli Tepe, now excavated by the archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, has fourteen thousand years, right at the beginning of the Holocene at the end of the last  ice age of the Quaternary. By then it had opened a passage between the perpetual ice of Alaska that allowed to pass large animal herds to North America behind which did go Euro-Asian tribes that ended the indigenous population, apparently from African origin (some say Australian) as believe some anthropologists, people who would have gotten there browsing thousands of years before.

The dominant general scenario is the thaw, with consequent rise of the sea ​​level while at the same time near the Ecuador the start point of the desertification of large geographic areas that restricted mobility to fluvial strips or the shores of lakes or the coasts. Gobekli Tepe is at the feets of the valley of Harran , in the heart of the call fertile crescent or fertile half moon, an area enclosed between deserts, the sea and mountainous zones. Although their builders in appearance stubbornly refused to accept that from very early, neighboring peoples within the boundaries of the Fertile Crescent began to adopting nomadic livestock as a new form of life, a bit later the changes would become more radical with the initiation and subsequent development of agriculture about 10000 BC . It is surprising that it was built on a hill , but between the Canaanite tribes mentioned in the Bible was common to perform rituals of worship in the high places, as it reflects the episode of the sacrifice that is required of Abraham.
This monumental complex had to be the work of clans and tribal villagers within a few hundred miles around. The fact of that each season, the enclosure was buried should not be considered a mystery, it was not a place to live but to meeting and worship, there was no anyone when leaving the place until next time, so they buried all, likely to preserve it,  they would not want to find, tainted later the holy place full of sacrilegious droppings, all  because some shepherd thought to keep livestock inside,  in the best case, people moved so much and private property or private land was not well seen. Presumably at first for a while, the structure was unearthed with the purpose to keep improving or expanding the facility, to bury it again later, although it seems obvious that in the end they decided to build a new above, of increasingly smaller dimensions, until  that only did remain one artificial hill.

In a couple thousand years the way to understand the life of hunter-gatherers from Gobekli Tepe was literally surrounded by the Neolithic revolution and its ancient customs were diluted to the same time that the people mingling with farmers, former places of worship were been abandoned gradually until finally, the number of pilgrims got down so much that it never again would be built in that place, as before, above the buried temple, any other temple . You could trace the remains of that culture, three or four thousand years later, in the southwest of Anatolia in Çatalhöyük , Alan Hoyuk and other places where was preserved the pleasure by adorn themselves with leopard skins, the pervasive cult of the bull, also the veneration of the skulls of the ancestors and funerary rituals involving scavengers like vultures in the role of guest diners , it seems because the ancestors in that way can really rise to the skies albeit in the belly of a vulture, a custom that far from being rare, is still practiced in parts of Tibet and elsewhere, we can see in some westerns as American Indians used to expose their dead to birds on elevated gurneys.

Currently the enigma is not the existence of a culture without pottery, pre-agricultural in early times, often it tends to obviate the Paleolithic industries of the leather, stone and wood that allowed to survive humans in the ice age, the real mystery is enclosed in the symbols shown in the strange T-shaped pillars, relatively sophisticated for the technology of that time. Particularly striking are those two anthropomorphic T-shaped pillars of the centre, significantly larger than those around them . Despite the extreme stylization not seem to represent the primordial couple ,  perhaps something even more abstract , although it seems there is some consensus among specialists, they are people , ie men, due to fur loincloth, although maybe they are gods (Shumuqan or Shakkan mesopotamic god of the beasts) . Also is striking the motif of the belt, a H between brackets that must mean something because this H is repeated here and there, sometimes lying down, other, vertical.

In some of the T beams are represented what seem curious scenes of hunting with nets, or rather the concept “to hunt with net”.

In others, the interpretation is more difficult:

It’s definitely a hieroglyph, ie they are not just representations of animals grouped randomly, maybe the vulture and the sun are a reference to heaven or the light. The three buckets with handle on top, look like  the buckets that can be seen in some Mesopotamian representations and also in the Olmec culture, however the little creature to the right of each handle makes difficult the meaning.

cubeta-olmeca

Annunak

By the year 8000 BC Gobekli Tepe is finally buried, when precisely in the western end of the Fertile Crescent, the tower and the sturdy walls of Jericho were erected, a city which would have two thousand people.  It was destroyed several times, different groups often fought to make their way of life prevail . After during two thousand years, in the direction from north to south of the strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates, proto- cities were developing along the major trade routes or other strategic locations , is when he finally appears ceramics apparently very late, because have been found older fragments of pottery in Japan.

Recently it discuss the possibility that the Mediterranean Sea overflowed the Bosphorus at that time and filled the Black Sea basin, which was a smaller fresh water lake. A major event that is not yet known in which way and measure affected the environment and people of the area.

About 6000 BC appears the molten metal, although it was not generalized until a little later, when were improved transportation after the discovery of the wheel. The pottery fron this time were decor in a very elaborate way.  it highlights the Hassuna style or Hassuna-Samarra and later style from Tell Halaf, until that about 5500 BC a new type of ceramic poorly decorated and even rougher, but made on a potter wheel, replaces the previous, spreading itself rapidly from Eridu towards the north, is known as the culture of El Obeid.
There is a huge reluctance among experts when it tries to identify the filiation of this culture, is a hotly debated issue, it is objected that it could have been an aggressive invasion appealing the destruction found in Level IV of Tell Arpachiya, it is argued that there is a break in the pottery style from the XIV level of Uruk onwards, it is speculated about the origin of the toponyms. The truth is that El Obeid reflects such phenomena arising from a series of rapid qualitative changes on the way of relating to the environment, as those have been recently happening since the industrial revolution. Not that nothing happened of relevance in the age of Gobekli Tepe, simply there is no record of almost anything, but at least we can say that its decline may represent the beginning of the end of our dependence on nature, until a new ice age, climb us down from the clouds.