From canibalism to capitalism IV

The Holocene interglacial  (ancient Greek prefix composed of  “holos” that refers to the totality, the “whole” and Kainos, which it  means “recent”, ie “all recent”, Now, in other words.) Is the current geological epoch within the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era.

The -10 000 is a round, special figure in many ways, is a turning point, the good times are no longer,  mammoths scarce, as the ground sloths, the mastodons, all giant mammals and dozens of species become extinct from one end to another planet in just two thousand years , by the effect of changes in the environment and of course, the human action. In Near and Middle East arises the agriculture and livestock,  apparently as a localized phenomenon but soon spread worldwide.

The world  then was a bit different, the north pole pointed to a region of the space closer to Vega , a star of the constellation Lyra, instead of the Little Bear as is currently the case , on the other hand the axis of the earth was more inclined towards the sun of what is now, so the northern hemisphere received much more solar radiation as nowadays,  besides the pass of the Earth through the point closest to the sun elliptical path, occurred in summer and not in winter as today . At the beginning of the Holocene, the sea level was still at least one hundred meters lower,  for this reason, perhaps, there are no remains of this past, all human settlements near the sea would be found today under water. The Arabian Desert and the Sahara (where Lake Chad was about ten times bigger) so far enjoyed a subtropical climate as a result of a massive monsoon strengthened by evaporation of the northern hemisphere , the great multitude of cave paintings found in the Algerian region of Hoggar and Tassili , showing among other things, that at least until -6000 the hunting teemed in these places  .

Thanks to the development of “technology” , the microlithism and comprehensive use of resources,  the Cro-Magnon did achieve prevail over the rule of cold, where Neanderthals failed and had to be an amazing challenge. The bone awls and needles , plant fibers, tendons and gut strings , enabled him to make shoes and outerwear infinitely more effective than those of their missing european cousins​​, at the same time  that a good number of accessories, tools, utensils, embellishments ( some of molten metal) and highly sophisticated weapons, (we know that from the beginning of this era,  men used boats to sail from the shores of Near East to Cyprus, with the purpose of hunting dwarf hippos, now extinct ). Despite their artifacts that facilitated and made ​​more bearable and comfortable the life, nevertheless , certainly was a hard life, however there were periods of free time , favored the development of each individual’s own capacities , the practice led to specialization , which later lead to profession . The “Cro-Magnon style” has been preserved beyond environmental differences until now and it is still possible to trace it,  in communities like the Yanomami , Bushmen , Inuit and some more , even though the cultural contamination. Now are just primitive life forms but however to the Neanderthals must have seemed complicated, highly technical and dificult , or perhaps just too different from their own, who knows…

Faced with this way of life based on hunting and gathering, suddenly we find another in which radical differences are observed in the way of relating to the environment. Although apparently it appears in the Near and the Middle East, we can not exclude that also appeared simultaneously in America or Asia. This is a new “style” not only completely different, but antagonistic: the concept of property appears derived, among other reasons, from the effort spent in getting artificially soil productivity. Trade soon ceased to be a mere exchange of gifts to become what day it is today, an activity next to  piracy , fear obliges to fortify villages to address the looting by the “barbarians”, the pillage of the nomads or the ambitions of neighboring peoples: ten thousand years ago in Jericho two thousand people wanted to live behind a wall ten meters thick and eight high.

Although the earliest pottery has 11,000 years and has been located in Japan, independently in appearance, about  -10,000 arises in Mesopotamia with the culture of El Obeid, and a bit later in -9500 in the Sahara. Until then no one had needed crockery. Geology, anthropology and archeology among others, put at our disposal a host of such data, obtained from variegated, so sophisticated ways as dating techniques based on content in samples of certain isotopes, or due to the finding of the presence of droppings of certain rodent , extinct in a known date, an information with which is actually possible to compose the giant puzzle, piece by piece, an added work that can leave us a glimpse, with effort, some aspects of becoming of those times, though obviously, there are huge gaps that must to be filled. Unlike this pixelated and incomplete but fairly accurate image, which provides science, the written testimony intended deliver complete stories, perfectly seasoned and cooked, ready to consumption. They are in many cases much older summaries of ancient facts, copies of other copies of stories that had never been written before. These fascinating stories certainly lack the precision and the current scientific rigor, but the written often speak of facts corroborated later by the same science, stories where is always present the figure of  the gods, however, prehistorians tell us nothing about these beings, but we all would have to take more account of certain paintings of the Tassili and some other “curiosities” impossible to ignore but properly classified as “incomprehensible”, after many headache, I suppose.

The main merit of the god Osiris , says Diodorus of Sicily, was to make “men lost the habit of eating each other ” teaching them agriculture. Apparently when hunting disappeared with climate change and over- predators, humans went crazy and suffered castaway syndrome from comics , when in his thoughts, his mate of misery is a roasted chicken.
You might think that the ancients were quite naive in their beliefs and who were endowed with an inordinate imagination , in fact they spent much effort in building cosmogonies and theogonies absolutely surreal to our eyes, even in the writings where there is not anything divine or metaphysical surprises the obsessive presence of the gods, yet interwoven with myth there is often an echo of reality , the problem is properly interpret it given the widespread taste for the enigmatic and mystical flourish, in this regard Plutarch advised to read between the lines . Plato explains it putting into the mouth of a priest of Neith (called ” Sonchis ” according to Plutarch ) in Sais , Egypt, these words: ” Take an example, among you it says that once Phaeton, the son of the Sun rode in the car of his father and not being able to go on the paternal path, burned what was on the ground and died struck by lightning . The story, though told as a legend, refers in fact to a deviation of the bodies in the heavens that revolve around the earth and the destruction that at large intervals, covers the earth’s surface by a large fire ” .

Plato is also responsible for one of my favorite myths, common one, which summarizes the ” Timaeus ” but that tell in detail in another dialogue, called ” Critias ” sadly unfinished .  Few texts so meager have been object of so much speculation , since it was drafted, has been studied, analyzed , interpreted , gutted in short, by generations of scholars  without too much progress . A huge incognita , ” large as Libya and Asia put together ,”  although there is evidence that could support the myth of Atlantis , for example, a curious linguistic peculiarity : while the syllable ” Atl ” does not exist in any Western language, Asiatic or other than the name of Atlas and its derivatives, in the other side of the Atlantic , is used extensively in the Aztec language . If the ruins found at 300 m depth , off the coast of Cuba , are actually ruins and not naturally occurring rock formations , insurance that will fuel the controversy .